Category Archives: Uncategorized

Evidence Bases

April 22, 2020

This is a list of Cognadev's Evidence bases available for download.

Evidence Base 1

Webinars and Videos

December 07, 2018



HRM demands versus delivery


An organisational culture solution


Creative leadership


Executive assessment and team compilation


A Holistic Approach to Talent Management


Leadership identification and development


Talent management for organisational viability


People development within the changing world of work


Skylab, Training and eLearning

Towards an Integrated Assessment of Leadership Potential

M Prinsloo
August 15, 2018

This paper focuses on the assessment of leadership potential in terms of a number of related philosophical, theoretical, and technical considerations. A critical evaluation of current assessment practice is followed by the introduction of alternative assessment methodologies and techniques aimed at measuring consciousness, cognition, and motivation. Practical guidelines for integrated and holistic leadership assessment, as well as the future of assessment, are also addressed.
Introduction The issue of leadership is central to the practice of industrial psychology and psychometrics, the purpose of which include realising human potential and transforming counter-productive cultural patterns in order to enhance sustainability, integration, and evolution within the realm of organisational and other social systems. Leadership research includes a focus on the individual (for purposes of personal development); an organisational orientation (to enhance performance and value add in the work environment); or an existential-philosophical perspective (focused on the evolution of consciousness). The aim of this paper is to contextualise the construct of leadership potential in terms of complexity, collective consciousness, and personal traits. Factors related to cognition, levels of consciousness, and motivation are integrated in terms of a Jungian perspective based on the work of Mindell in particular. Given the shortcomings of current psychometric offerings, alternative assessment methodologies and techniques are proposed for the measurement of the following:
  • cognition by the Cognitive Process Profile (CPP);
  • levels of consciousness by the Value Orientations (VO); and
  • motivational factors by means of the Motivational Profile (MP).
This paper is the first in a series of four on leadership, including:
  • this discussion of leadership assessment solutions;
  • a second article describing a theoretical model of cognitive processing;
  • a third contribution proposing an integrative theoretical framework of levels of consciousness; and
  • a fourth paper explaining the development of consciousness and cognition within the leadership context.
These four aspects represent a holistic perspective on the assessment and development of leadership potential.
For the full article click the icon below.
Equifinal profiling

Technical Report Series

P Barrett
August 15, 2018

Technical Report Series These articles provide detailed expositions of analyses undertaken as part of the evidence-base supporting Cognadev products. Each contains an executive summary, along with the logic, analysis-details, results, and critical evaluations supporting the statements made in that summary.

  • Evaluating the relationships between 4 subscales and the Full IQ scales of Sigma Assessment System's Multidimensional Aptitute Battery (MAB)
  • Evaluating the relationships between the Abstract Reasoning subscale of Psytech International's General Reasoning Test Battery (GRT2) and a range of CPP attributes which appear in/contribute to the CPP assessment report. The sample numbered 259 South African employment candidates assessed within a recruitment process by an organizational development consultancy. 143 cases completed the CPP, with 138 cases with complete data on both the CPP and GRT2 Abstract Reasoning scale.
  • Evaluating the relationships between the Verbal and Numerical subscales of Psytech International's Critical Reasoning Test Battery (CRTB2) and a range of CPP attributes which appear in/contribute to the CPP assessment report. The sample numbered 128 South African employment candidates assessed within a recruitment process by an HR consultancy.

For the full article in .pdf click the icon

Technical Report 1

  • The retest reliability of the VO was assessed, where the test results to be compared are two ordered-category sequences of selected and rejected orientations, consisting of up to three orientations per sequence (Accepted Values) and one or two orientations (Rejected Values). A new computational comparison analysis algorithm was constructed to work with ordered category sequences, generating a percentage match index varying between 0% (no agreement) to 100% (absolute identity).

For the full article in .pdf click the icon

Technical Report 2

  • Using the VO Technical Manual mixed-gender sample dataset of n=3,683 cases, four homogeneity (reliability) coefficients were computed for every values orientation "scale"

For the full article in .pdf click the icon

Technical Report 3

  • Analysing and reporting upon the relationships between VO selected and rejected values orientations, MBTI personality scores & types, Belbin ranked team types, and CPP attribute-scores, levels of work, and ranked cognitive styles.

For the full article in .pdf click the icon

Technical Report 4

    Investigating short, medium, and long-term (> 5 years) retest reliability using two samples of data:
  • 87 students undertaking an Accounting degree course at a South African University
  • 2,724 respondents comprised primarily of job applicants who had completed the CPP on two separate occasions, but also included some students, and attendees at CPP training courses.

For the full article in .pdf click the icon

Technical Report 5

  • Does a small deviation r-square value have any pragmatic value at all?
  • What magnitude of deviation r-square is worth reporting beyond: nothing to see here?

For the full article in .pdf click the icon

Technical Report 5

  • This paper investigates how the cost of implementing the Q12 Employee Engagement assessment may be critically evaluated in terms of calculating the likelihood of making or losing money as a corporate-wide Q12 score is increased. i.e. The question posed and answered via computational simulation is "what are the odds of a company making or losing money as a result of an increase in score from 36 (average) to something higher".

For the full article in .pdf click the icon

Technical Report 5

  • This study is aimed at answering the question of whether the CPP results of individuals tend to match the complexity requirements of their work as indicated by the Stratified Systems Theory (SST).

For the full article in .pdf click the icon

Technical Report 5

  • This study investigates the relationship between: - Cognadev’s Cognitive Process Profile (CPP) - Cognadev’s Values Orientations (VO) - Bar-On’s Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQi)

For the full article in .pdf click the icon

Technical Report 5

  • This study investigates the nature of the proposed holonic model of information processing constructs on which the Cognitive Process Profile (CPP) is based, and what distinguishes low and high information processing competency groups in terms of their preferred cognitive styles, functional area of employment, and educational qualifications.

For the full article in .pdf click the icon

Technical Report 10

  • In this investigation, we look at how preferred cognitive styles vary over different job families and age-groups, equated on their educational level. A sample of the most recently acquired 60,572 cases of CPP data were used, subdivided into four age groups (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50 and above). We computed the median ranked style for each of the 14 CPP cognitive styles, within each age-group, across 10 job families.

For the full article in .pdf click the icon

Technical Report 11

  • This investigation examines the variation in scores on the 14 CPP Information processing competencies (IPCs) as a function of various current employment categories, age at CPP completion, and highest attained educational level, using a sample of the most recently acquired 60,572 cases of CPP data.

For the full article in .pdf click the icon

Technical Report 12

13. THE BINOMIAL EFFECT SIZE DISPLAY (BESD) Is this always an accurate index of effect?
  • I provide the definition, some warnings of the conditions under which it may not always produce accurate results, and some worked examples demonstrating those conditions. Overall, I think it’s a pretty good ‘quick approximation’ … but it is no substitute to having all the data at hand to calculate the actual effect/accuracy implied by a correlation/validity coefficient.

For the full article in .pdf click the icon

Technical Report 13

Two articles support the content of this technical report: 

Rosenthal, R., & Rubin, D.R. (1982) A simple, general purpose display of magnitude of experimental effect. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 2, 166-169.

For the full article in .pdf click the icon

A simple, general purpose display of magnitude of experimental effect.

Hsu, L.M. (2004) Biases of success rate differences shown in Binomial Effect Size Displays. Psychological Methods, 9, 2, 183-197.

For the full article in .pdf click the icon

Biases of success rate differences shown in Binomial Effect Size Displays.

14. EQUIFINAL PROFILING I was asked this question recently by an executive responsible for hiring in a large corporate:
  • “We observe too often that people with seemingly disparate profiles can excel in the same role. What type of analyses can someone do with a big dataset of predictors and criteria to determine whether multiple "profiles" can predict success? It seems that traditional model approaches can’t do this as they just create a single ‘average’ profile or solution.”

For the full article in .pdf click the icon

Technical Report 14

15. RAW SCORE TRANSFORMATIONS This report provides the rationale, computational information, and graphical examples associated with score transformation methodologies in use by Cognadev, other test publishers, and data scientists.
  • Written by Paul Barrett

For the full article in .pdf click the icon

Technical Report 14

Organisational and leadership transformation: a case study

By Maretha Prinsloo on June 26, 2018

The following case study was conducted in a multi-national manufacturing company with head office in Switzerland and operations in Europe, Asia, and North and South America. However, the processes and principles that were applied are applicable in organisations of any size.


A due-diligence evaluation of the executive and organisational performance indicated that the core organisational challenge was associated with its culture, which closely resembled that of the broader industry-sector within which it operated; characterised by inadequate governance and compliance standards. Given the entrenched nature of business development practices in the industry, a fundamental approach to the cultural transformation of the organisation was required.

The solution involved the appointment of a new CEO and HR Director; a review of the executive leadership of the organisation; an evaluation of the organisational culture and its long term social and environmental implications; and the development of executive leadership capability and awareness. Aspects involved included the assessment of senior leadership; an evaluation of job-related competency requirements; an analysis of organisational practices; the optimisation of people-job matching at executive levels by focusing on the “right person for the right job at the right time”; and the personal development of the executive leadership.

Given the emerging possibility at the time of a merger/acquisition opportunity, the organisational effectiveness and its potential impact on the long-term sustainability of the industry as a whole, were important considerations in the design of the transformational solution.

The Strategy

In order to fully understand the various local cultural milieus and the local and global work requirements of the existing executive talent, a structured assessment and evaluation strategy was deployed on 300 executives across regions in Asia, Europe, North and South America. This holistic assessment strategy included an evaluation of the business-related factors and job analyses. The complexity and competency requirements of the executive positions were assessed by means of the Contextualised Competency Mapping (CCM) process as provided by Cognadev.

In addition to the normal annual performance appraisals that were conducted at executive levels in the organisation, specific psychological characteristics of the executives were assessed:

  • cognitive preferences and capabilities;
  • value orientations and worldviews;
  • motivational drivers;
  • personality and team role preferences.

The assessment battery comprised the following instruments:

  • Cognitive Process Profile (CPP)
  • Value Orientations (VO)
  • Motivational Profile (MP)
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
  • Belbin Team roles.

Supervised assessments were conducted globally by Cognadev. All executives received individualised feedback on their assessment results aimed at enhancing self-insight. Feedback sessions included the discussion of job-related performance issues. Competency reports were compiled for all participants.

After the assessment phase was completed, developmental initiatives were then implemented.

Although the executive team had been performing at a satisfactory level globally with the organisation showing adequate growth and profitability across regions, the assessment results indicated development areas that needed to be addressed.

Given the fact that time was of the essence, it was decided to restructure executive positions where necessary and to allocate executives to roles that best suited their personal profiles. Two thirds of the executive were subsequently moved to newly structured roles.

The psychological assessment results further informed the design of appropriate development programmes and business coaching initiatives which were undertaken by a leading European business school. In addition, the results of the job analyses and the competency reports were used by the HR Director of the company for the joint purposes of job structuring/refinement and people placement. His primary aim was to optimise person-job matching to achieve a sense of “flow” for the executives involved, as this was expected to optimise job effectiveness, job satisfaction and engagement at the executive level.

In collaboration with the organisation, the developmental initiatives undertaken by the business school comprised structured lectures and personal business coaching sessions. This systematic approach involved behaviour-based leadership interventions aimed at self and business awareness, self-empowerment, self-transcendence and the acceptance of accountability in pursuit of business, social and environmental goals.

Given the potential impact of organisational culture and the associated values and behaviours of the executive, a focus on culture and values formed a core component of the transformational initiative. It involved the identification of the core values of the organisation including those of people development, integrity and customer excellence. Efforts at embedding these values throughout the organisation involved the operationalisation of the broad values in terms of their behaviours.

This information was then incorporated into a performance appraisal system which was deployed among employees within all levels of the organisation, assessing criteria such as:

  • “lead self”, which refers to owning the desired values;
  • “lead others”, demonstrated by acting as a role model and continuously promoting organisational values;
  • “lead the organisation”, demonstrated by the alignment of business practices and decisions with the organisational values.

Throughout the entire process, the HR Director monitored the impact of the initiative on the organisational culture as well as the morale at both executive and operational levels of the organisation; taking feedback from the executives on the impact and effectiveness of the various components of the solution.

The Outcomes

The executive assessment and development strategy spanned approximately three years. On completion of the project, the performance of the executive teams in the various regions was again formally evaluated. Another due-diligence exercise was conducted to assess the broad impact of the organisational transformation process and its contribution to the organisation’s financial value in particular, this latter being especially important given the upcoming merger/acquisition opportunity.


1. Financial

A marked difference was found between the results of the two due-diligence procedures that were conducted within the 3-year time frame. The transformational initiative was gauged to have contributed to a significant improvement in the performance of the executive team and the organisation as a whole. This translated into an increment of approximately €3bn to the net asset value of the organisation, which had a significant positive impact on the value of its shares and, therefore, the final acquisition consideration of the organisation.

2. Human Capital

Additionally, the impact of the executive development initiative was observed in executives reporting greater self-actualisation and job satisfaction, and giving positive feedback on the effectiveness of the business coaching. The enhanced executive performance was verified by 360-degree feedback results in which the majority of executives received increased performance scores. The modal location within bell-curve representations of executive performance moved significantly toward higher levels of performance and effectiveness.

3. Business Unit Performance

All the business units showed a compelling degree of enhanced business performance. The CEO of the organisation publicly attributed this to the transformational initiative, led by HR, which had focused on the organisational culture and values as well as the assessment and development of the executive.


4. Organisational Governance

The previously identified organisational culture of inadequate compliance and governance was replaced by one more conducive to robust and enduring organisational success. The negative financial effect of unethical business practices (calculated as amounting to approximately a third of all organisational expenses) was substantially reduced without impacting on the turnover or market viability of the organisation.


The ROI of this organisational transformation project which primarily involved executive assessment and development exceeded all expectations. Not only did it result in employee engagement and effectiveness at the strategic levels of the organisation, it also benefited employee morale and contributed to a culture of compliance and ethical business practices that led directly to a significant increase in the financial value of the company.


May 12, 2018

Below you can find links to download presentations that were used at conferences and talks.

Equifinal profiling Equifinal profiling Equifinal profiling Equifinal profiling

Presentations with Prezi


Prezi is tool for presentations where you can zoom in and out and make them more interesting.

Dr Paul Barrett, our Chief Researcher, has created the following Prezi:

Prezi 1: The Relationships between the Bar-On EQi & Cognadev's Value Orientations (VO)


Prezi 2: CPP Levels of Work and Rated Job Complexity


Using the Prezi viewer on Android or IOS devices

In 'portrait' mode, you can tap the arrows at the bottom of the prezi to go forward and backward. Use one finger to pan across your prezi. Double-tap to smart zoom and pinch to zoom in or out. When using in widescreen mode, tap either side of a slide image to move left or right through the presentation. We recommend downloading the Prezi app for Android or IOS

VO Case Studies – Organisational Culture

April 07, 2017

Research on the Value Orientations in the form of 20 case studies. The research provides insight into the worldview and organisational cultures of diverse industries. The qualitative interpretations are useful to people familiar with the VO or interested in Spiral Dynamics.
For the full article click the icon below.
Equifinal profiling

Research Study in Linguistics using the CPP

February 24, 2017

Read this interesting research study, Successful vs. Less Successful Iranian EFL Learners: Cognitive Styles, Cognitive Flexibility, and Experience Evaluation by Avarzamani & Farahian as published in the International Journal of English Linguistics.
For the full article click the icon below.
Equifinal profiling

Useful downloads and tools

January 01, 2017

If you are a registered Cognadev consultant and have completed the CPP training you can download some useful files.
Installation guides and tools Research and technical manuals The following technical manuals are available:
  • CPP Technical Manual
  • LOI Technical Manual
Contact Cognadev for the latest manuals.

Investigating the reliability and validity of the Cognitive Process Profile (CPP).

May 20, 2014

How do we assess the reliability of an assessment which, by its very nature, precludes re‐assessment within a period of time where familiarity of what was undertaken previously will distort future performance on the assessment? This is the conundrum facing investigation of reliability of the CPP.
When we investigate validity, we have two questions to answer, the first is concerned entirely with measurement, the second with meaning:
  • Does the test measure what it claims to measure?
  • Does the test score show the expected relationships with other theoretically‐relevant scores, behaviours, and outcomes?
But, from consideration of an alternative perspective on validity, another simple question arises for which an answer can be sought: Do clients find substantive value in using the CPP? For the full article in .pdf click the icon below. Investigating the reliability and validity of the Cognitive Process Profile (CPP)